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Japanese propaganda resembling a Farmers Bank of China 10 cent note, acquired postwar by a German Jewish refugee

Object | Accession Number: 2010.240.23

Safe conduct pass resembling Chinese currency acquired postwar by Ralph (Ralf) Harpuder. The Japanese occupation authority created these passes to closely resemble actual currency. This version uses currency issued in 1937 by the Farmers Bank of China. Four year old Ralf, his parents, Hans and Gerda, and his 14 year old sister, Ursula, left Berlin, Germany, following Kristallnacht on November 9-10, 1938. They left for Shanghai because it was an open port with no visa required and arrived in March 1939. Shanghai was controlled by the Japanese military and as the war intensified, they were relocated to the Hongkew ghetto. Food and supplies became extremely difficult to obtain, but Ralf was able to stay in school because they waived his tuition. The city was liberated by the US Army on September 3, 1945. That October, Ralf's father died of malnutrition. In March 1947, the family emigrated to the United States.

emigration:  1939 March
creation:  approximately 1940
distribution: China
Exchange Media
Object Type
Scrip (aat)
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of Yvonne Harpuder
Record last modified: 2022-07-28 21:51:09
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