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White porcelain match holder depicting a stereotypical Jewish peddler

Object | Accession Number: 2016.184.10

Decorative porcelain match holder shaped as a Jewish peddler carrying a large, empty sack on his back. The man has several stereotypical physical features commonly attributed to Jewish men: a large nose, fleshy lips, and red hair. Peddlers were itinerant vendors who sold goods to the public. Peddling was a common occupation for young Jewish men during the 18th and 19th centuries. However, old prejudices stemming from the economic and professional restrictions placed on early European Jews formed an antisemitic stereotype of the Jewish peddler. These restrictions limited Jews to the occupations of retail peddling, hawking, and moneylending. Additionally, medieval religious belief held that charging interest (known as usury) was sinful, and the Jews who occupied these professions were looked down upon, predominantly by European Christians. They were perceived as morally deficient and willing to engage in unethical business practices. The inability of Jews to legally hold other occupations, combined with Christians’ disdain for the professions Jews were allowed to practice, helped form the canard of the greedy Jew who exploited Gentiles. This canard was often visually depicted as a Jewish peddler, an untrustworthy figure that sold cut-rate items at inflated prices. The depiction of wicked Jewish characters as redheads also has a long history. Some interpretations of the Bible describe Esau and David (King of Israel), as having red hair, and for many, red hair became a Jewish identifier, even though Jews are no more likely to have red hair than other groups. In medieval Europe, redheads were regarded as untrustworthy, and the Jewish literary villains Fagin and Shylock had red hair. This figurine is one of the 900 items in the Katz Ehrenthal Collection of antisemitic artifacts and visual materials.

Date
creation:  approximately 1800-1899
Geography
creation: England
Classification
Decorative Arts
Category
Ceramics
Object Type
Match holders (lcsh)
Genre/Form
Figurines.
Credit Line
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection, Gift of the Katz Family
 
Record last modified: 2021-04-28 11:52:20
This page: https://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/irn537068