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Oral history interview with Maria Kipnis

Oral History | Accession Number: 2014.6.1 | RG Number: RG-50.030.0725

Some video files begin with 10-60 seconds of color bars.

Maria Kipnis (née Schraibschtein), born in Brovary, Ukraine on June 12, 1928, describes her parents, who were both doctors; how her father, Miron Schraibschtein, served as a doctor in the Soviet Army when WWII began and did not survive the war; how her brother, Emmanuil Schraibschtein, was evacuated from Kiev University to Alma-Ata, served in the Soviet Army, and was killed in the Kherson region on December 23, 1943; how she and her mother, Ida Ofman, fled from Kiev in September 1941, going from village to village and ending up in Glińsk (Hlyns'k, Rivnens'ka oblast, Ukraine); being allowed to live in the morgue of a clinic by a local doctor, Maria Grigoryevna Gaponenko, and her husband, Nikolay Fomich Gaponenko; the horrible conditions; how the Gaponenkos knew they were Jews but never discussed it; changing her name to Tamara Gorskaya and her mother changing hers to Lidiya Mikhaylovna Gorskaya (maiden name Zhukova); how Mr. Gaponenko helped her mother get a new ID; how her mother, who was a dentist, began seeing patients; the German commandant's office in Glinsk and the chief of police, who was a Latvian, added her and her mother’s names to a list of people to be liquidated; how the Gaponenkos helped them avoid arrest; her memories of Ukrainian police killing communists and Jews; the antisemitism in Glinsk; moving with her mother in the beginning of 1943 into a house where the owner sympathized with them; the liberation of Glinsk in September 1943; returning with her mother to Brovary and seeing that their house had been destroyed; how her mother was a well-known person in Brovary before the war, which helped her to get building materials for a new house relatively quickly; how in many cases Jews who returned to Kiev could not get their apartments back; and her views on antisemitism and its effects on relationships between people.

Interviewee
Maria Kipnis
Interviewer
Liliya Meyerovich
Date
2014 January 14  (interview)
Language
Russian
Extent
1 digital file : WAV.
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Record last modified: 2018-01-22 11:23:09
This page: https://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/irn74778