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Jüdische Gemeinde Berlin (Fond 1326)

Document | Digitized | Accession Number: 1993.A.0085.1.40 | RG Number: RG-11.001M.40

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    Reports, organizational correspondence, and correspondence to and from the community library on various topics including the proliferation of antisemitic leaflets and posters in Germany.

    Note: USHMM Archives holds only selected records.
    Alternate Title
    Jewish Community Berlin
    inclusive:  1931-1934
    Credit Line
    Forms part of the Claims Conference International Holocaust Documentation Archive at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. This archive consists of documentation whose reproduction and/or acquisition was made possible with funding from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.
    Collection Creator
    Judische Gemeinde zu Berlin
    The Jewish Community of Berlin-According to a census of June 16, 1933, the Jewish population of Berlin, Germany's capital city, was about 160,000. Berlin's Jewish community was the largest in Germany, comprising more than 32 percent of all Jews in the country. In the face of Nazi persecution, many Jews emigrated from Berlin. Berlin's Jewish population fell to about 80,000 people as a result of emigration from Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1939, despite the movement of other German Jews to Berlin. Like the Jews of Germany as a whole, the Jews of Berlin faced persecution and discrimination after 1933. On April 1, 1933, Jewish stores and businesses were boycotted, an official action which spurred many subsequent unofficial boycotts of Jewish goods and services. In 1933 most Jewish civil servants and professionals were summarily fired or pensioned. In May of that year, "un-German" books—those written by Jews, liberals, and leftists, among others—were publicly burned in front of the opera house. During Kristallnacht, the "Night of Broken Glass" pogrom on November 9–10, 1938, most of Berlin's synagogues were burned down and Jewish-owned stores and homes were looted and vandalized. The shattering of shop windows, especially along Leipziger Street, gave the pogrom its name. Dozens of Jews were killed in Berlin. Thousands were arrested and taken to concentration camps, particularly to Sachsenhausen. Deportations of Jews from Berlin to ghettos and killing centers in eastern Europe took place between October 1941 and April 1943. Assembly points for the deportations were established at synagogues on Levetzow Street and Heidereuter Alley, at the Jewish cemetery on Grosse Hamburger Street, and on Rosen Street. Later, even the Jewish home for the aged, the community office building, and the Jewish hospital were used as assembly centers. After enough Jews for an entire transport (usually 1,000 people) had been assembled in these makeshift centers, they were taken to the rail station—usually the freight yards at Grunewald, sometimes the Anhalter or Putlitz Street train stations. They were then loaded onto passenger rail cars, or sometimes onto freight cars.The first deportation of Jews from Berlin occurred in October 1941, when 1,000 Jews were transported to the Łódź ghetto in Poland. By January 1942, about 10,000 Jews had been deported from Berlin to ghettos in eastern Europe, mainly Łódź, Riga, Minsk, and Kovno. Elderly Jews from Berlin were deported to Theresienstadt in 1942 and 1943. Beginning in 1942, Jews were deported from Berlin directly to the killing centers, primarily to Auschwitz-Birkenau. In 1943, most of the staff of the Reich Association of Jews in Germany, the central Jewish representative organization, was deported to Theresienstadt. All Jewish organizations and offices were disbanded. The majority of the remaining Jews in Berlin were deported by the end of April 1943. More than 60,000 Jews were deported from Berlin: more than 10,000 to the ghettos in eastern Europe, about 15,000 to Theresienstadt, and more than 35,000 to the killing centers in occupied Poland. Hundreds of Jews committed suicide rather than submit to the deportations. Thousands of Jews remained in Berlin, mostly those who had gone into hiding and also part-Jews and Jews with a non-Jewish spouse, who were initially excluded from deportation. Almost all of those deported were killed. [Source: USHMM web page,]
    Fishman, D. E. and Kupovetsky, M, Kuzelenkov, V. (ed.), Nazi-Looted Jewish Archives in Moscow. A guide to Jewish Historical and Cultural Collections in the Russian State Military Archive. Scranton: University of Scranton Press 2010. Published in association with the United States Holocaust memorial Museum and The Jewish Theological Seminary.

    Browder, G. C. Captured German and other Nation's Documents in the Osobyi (Special) Archive, Moscow. Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of Conference Group for Central European History of the American Historical Association. Internet access:

    Physical Details

    1 microfilm reel (partial) ; 16 mm.
    533 digital images : JPEG.
    System of Arrangement
    Fond 1326 (1725-1936). Opis 1; Delo 1-178. Selected records arranged in one series: 1. Correspondence and minutes, 1931-1934.

    Note: Location of digital images; Partial microfilm reel #111: Image #210-743.

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    There are no known restrictions on access to this material.
    Conditions on Use
    Reproduction and publication only with written permission of the Russian State Military Archives

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Source of acquisition is the Russian State Military Archive (Rossiĭskiĭ gosudarstvennyĭ voennyĭ arkhiv), Osobyi Archive, Fond 1326. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives received the filmed collection via the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum International Archival Programs Division in 1993.
    Record last modified:
    2023-06-16 10:36:33
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