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Oral history interview with Eli Carmel

Oral History | Digitized | Accession Number: 1995.A.1272.30 | RG Number: RG-50.120.0030

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    Oral history interview with Eli Carmel


    Interview Summary
    Eli Carmel (né Hans Weinberg), born in Vienna, Austria in 1917, recounts participating in Blau-Weiss; working at a Zionist summer camp with Teddy Kollek; his brother's immigration to Palestine in 1934; attending university; antisemitic harassment; the Anschluss; warnings from their non-Jewish landlord of German raids; moving to Zurich, then Geneva; his arrest in September 1939; his expulsion from Basel to a Gestapo prison in Lörrach; his transfer from prison to prison en route to Sachsenhausen; forced labor in a brick factory; beatings, hunger, and lack of sanitation; public executions; his release in September 1940 because his mother documented he would leave for Shanghai; returning home; traveling with his parents to Graz; illegally entering Yugoslavia; traveling to Zagreb via Maribor; the Jewish community assigning them to live with a non-Jew in Ruma; German invasion; Germans and Ustaša registering Jews; deportation in cattle cars to Zagreb; the Jewish community securing their release through bribes; obtaining false papers; traveling to a village in Italian-occupied territory; his arrest; imprisonment in Fiume (presently Rijeka); transfer 18 months later to Ferramonti; receiving Red Cross packages; escaping; hiding with villagers; liberation by United States troops; immigration to Palestine via Bari and Alexandria; his incarceration in ʻAtlit by the British; his release; serving in the Palmah; relations between national and political groups in Sachsenhausen; Polish Jews praying; his scars from mistreatment; the kindness of the Italians; lack of interest and disbelief from the Israeli public about his experiences until the 1970s; sharing only parts of his story with his children; and a recent visit to Berlin.
    Eli Carmel
    interview:  1993 November 30
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection

    Physical Details

    Oral histories.
    3 videocassettes (U-Matic) : sound, color ; 3/4 in..

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    Restrictions on access. Interview is viewable onsite at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum only.
    Conditions on Use
    Restrictions on use. Interview cannot be used in publication without the consent of the interviewee or his/her heirs.

    Keywords & Subjects

    Topical Term
    Antisemitism. Concentration camp escapes. Concentration camp inmates--Religious life. Concentration camps--Sociological aspects. Fathers and sons. Forced labor. Holocaust survivors. Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Personal narratives. Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Public opinion. Identification cards--Forgeries. Jewish youth--Austria--Societies and clubs. Jews--Migrations. Mothers and sons. Prisoners--Abuse of. Public opinion--Israel. Refugees, Jewish. World War, 1939-1945--Atrocities. World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives, Jewish. World War, 1939-1945--Prisoners and prisons, German. World War, 1939-1945--Prisoners and prisons, Italian. World War, 1939-1945--Prisoners and prisons, Swiss. Men--Personal narratives. Resistance groups (ushmm) Zionists -- Associations, institutions, etc. Youth Movements.

    Administrative Notes

    Nathan Beyrak conducted the interview with Eli Carmel in Israel on November 30, 1993, for the Israel Documentation Project. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives received the tapes of the interview by transfer from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Oral History Dept. in February1995.
    Funding Note
    The cataloging of this oral history interview has been supported by a grant from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.
    Record last modified:
    2023-08-28 07:56:45
    This page:

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