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Broadside proclaiming public support for the declaration of Hitler as both Chancellor and President

Object | Accession Number: 1990.333.28

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    Broadside proclaiming public support for the declaration of Hitler as both Chancellor and President

    Overview

    Brief Narrative
    German political broadside encouraging public support for Adolf Hitler’s usurpation of power after the death of German President, Paul von Hindenburg, in 1934. The broadside features an image of the ballot used in the referendum with the affirmative box brightly marked with a large X. After Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933, he began laying the foundations for the Nazi state, worked to secure his power, and eliminate his opposition. In February 1933, after an attack on the Reichstag, the government passed the Reichstag Fire Decree, which suspended individual rights and due process of law. In March of 1933, the German Parliament passed the enabling act, which allowed Hitler to create and sign legislation into law without parliamentary consent. To eliminate their opposition, Hitler and the Nazis abolished trade unions, replaced elected officials with Nazi appointees, and outlawed other political parties. On June 30, 1934, the Schutzstaffel (SS), acting on orders from Hitler, executed the party’s political enemies and rival members who threatened Hitler’s rule, in what would later be called, the Night of the Long Knives. On August 2, the last barrier to Hitler’s total control of Germany, President Paul Von Hindenburg, died. Hitler ordered the government to merge his position of Chancellor with the office of the President. To legitimize his position, the Nazis declared a referendum take place on August 19. The Nazis campaigned heavily for public support of the referendum, and 89 percent of voters supported the merger, approving Hitler’s absolute control of Germany.
    Title
    Am.19.August wird deutschen Volke folgende Frage vorgelegt
    Alternate Title
    On August 19 the following question will be presented to the German people
    Date
    publication/distribution:  1934 August 02-1934 August 19
    Geography
    creation: Munich (Germany)
    Credit Line
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection
    Markings
    front, top printed, black ink : Am 19.August wird dem deutschen / volk folgende frage vorgelegt: [On August 19 the following question will be presented to the German people:]
    front, center, printed, black ink : I / Erlass des Reichskanzlers zum Vollzug des Gesetzes über das Staatsoberhaupt / des Deutschen Reichs vom 1. August 1934 (Reichsgesetzbl. I S. 747). / Vom 2. August 1934. / Herr Reichsinnenminister! / Die insolge des nationalen Unglückes, das unser Volk getrossen hat, notwendig gewordene gesetzliche Regelung der Frage / des Staatsoberhauptes veranlass mich zu solgender Anordnung: / 1. Die Grösse des Dahingeschiedenen hat dem Titel Reichspräsident eine einmalige Bedeutung gegeben. Er ist nach / unser Aller Empfinden in dem, was er uns sagte, unzertrennlich verbunden mit dem Namen des grossen Toten. Ich bitte / daher, Vorsorge tressen zu wollen, dass ich im amtlichen und ausseramtlichen Verkehr wie bisher nur als Führer und Reiches= / kanzler angesprochen werde. Diese Regelung soll für alle Zukunft gelten. / 2. Ich will, dass die vom Kabinett beschlossene und verfassungsrechtlich gültige Betrauung meiner Person und damit des / Reichskanzleramtes an sich mit den Funktionen des früheren Reichspräsidenten die ausdrücsliche Sanktion des deutschen Volkes / erhält. Fest durchdrungen von der Ueberzeugung, dass jede Staatsgewalt vom Volke ausgehen und von ihm in freier und / geheimer Wahl bestätigt fein muss, bitte ich Sie, den Beschluss des Kabinetts mit den etwa noch notwendigen Ergänzungen / unverzüglich dem deutschen Volke zur freien Volksabstimmung vorlegen zu lassen. / Berlin, den 2. August 1934. / Der Reichskanzler / Adolf Hitler. [I / Decree of the Reich Chancellor for the Enforcement of the Act on the Head of State / of the German Reich of 1 August 1934 (Reich Law Gazette I p. 747). / From August 2, 1934. / The Reich Minister of the Interior! / As a result of the misfortune that has befallen our people, the settlement of the question of who should be head of state has led me to the following order: / 1. The magnitude of the late Paul von Hindenburg has given the title of Reich President a unique significance. It is / inseparably connected with the name of the Great Paul von Hindenburg, and to our feelings in what he said to us. Therefore, I / ask you to make it known that I will be addressed in official and unofficial communications as leader (Fuehrer) and Chancellor (Reichkanzler) / of the Reich. This regulation should be intended forever. / 2. The Cabinet has entrusted me with the constitutional powers of the president and the / Chancellery and I want the appointment to receive the sanction of the German people. / I am firmly convinced that state power must emanate from the people and be confirmed in a free election. / I ask you, the people, to confirm the cabinet’s amendments with a referendum. / Berlin, August 2, 1934. / The Chancellor / Adolf Hitler.]

    front, center, printed, black ink : II. / Beschluss der Reichsregierung zur Herbeiführung einer Volksabstimmung. / Vom 2. August 1934. / Entsprechend dem Wunsche des Führers und Reichskanzlers beschliess die Reichsregierung, am Sonntag, dem 19. August 1934, / eine Volksabssimmung über das Reichsgesetz vom 1. August 1934 (Reichsgesessbl. I S. 747) herbeizusühren / "Das Amt des Reichspräsidenten wird mit dem des Reichskanzlers vereinigt. Infolgedessen geben die / bisherigen Besugnisse des Reichspräsidenten auf den Führer und Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler über. Er bestimmt / feinen Stellvertreter." / und beaustragt den Reichsminister des Innern mit der Durchführung dieses Beschlusses. / Berlin, den 2. August 1934. / Die Reichsregietung [II. / Decision of the Reich government to reach a referendum. / From August 2 1934. / In accordance with the wishes of the Führer and Chancellor, the Reich Government decided on Sunday, 19 August 1934, / to bring about a referendum on the Reich law of 1 August 1934 (Imperial Law Gazette. I, p. 747) / "The office of the Reich President will be united with that of the Chancellor. As a result, the / former powers of the Reich President are transferred to the Führer and Chancellor Adolf Hitler, who will determine / his deputy." / and instruct the Reich Minister of the Interior to carry out this decision. / Berlin, 2 August 1934. / The Reich government]

    front, center, printed, black ink : Stimmst Du, deutscher Mann, und Du, deutsche Frau, / der in diesem Gesetz getroffenen Regelung zu? / Ja / Nein [German men and German women, / do you agree to the regulation made in this law? / Yes / No]
    front, bottom, printed, black ink : Das ganze Volk beantwortet diese / Frage mit einem einstimmigen / JA [The whole people answer this / question with a unanimous / YES]
    front, bottom right margin, printed black ink : Münchner Plakatdruckerei Wurm & Schreiber, Frauen-Platz 6 am Dom [Munich poster printer Wurm & Schreiber, Frauen-Platz 6 am Dom]
    Contributor
    Printer: Wurm & Schreiber
    Subject: Adolf Hitler
    Subject: Paul von Hindenburg
    Biography
    Paul von Hindenburg was born on October 2, 1847 in Posen, Prussia (now Poznań, Poland) to an aristocratic family. He joined the Prussian army after spending his childhood and teenage years in cadet school. He fought for Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and the Franco Prussian War in 1870-1871. After the unification of Germany, Hindenburg continued his service in the new German army, retiring in 1911 as a general. At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, he was recalled to serve as commander of the German Eighth Army. He led his forces to victory over Russia on the Eastern Front at the Battles of Tannenburg and Mausaurian, and became a national hero. In recognition for his accomplishments, Hindenburg was promoted to Field Marshal and received command of all German land forces in 1916. After Germany’s defeat in World War I, he was able to maintain his status as a war hero and retired in June 1919. Following the conclusion of World War I, the German November Revolution dissolved the monarchy and established the Weimar Republic.

    In April 1925, after the death of then president Friedrich Ebert, Hindenburg was elected as the Weimar Republic’s second president. During the 1920s the Nazi party had been gaining popular support. They were bolstered by the German people’s dissatisfaction with the stiff punishments of the Versailles Treaty, and the economic depression that struck in 1929 also exacerbated the people’s disillusionment with the government. When his presidential term expired in 1932, Hindenburg ran for reelection. It was believed he was the only candidate who could defeat Adolf Hitler. Hindenburg won the presidency, but the Nazi Party received a majority of the seats in the German parliament, the Reichstag. Unable to form a coalition government without Nazi support, Hindenburg’s chancellor, Franz von Papen, negotiated a deal with Hitler that would allow Hitler to become Chancellor, Papen would be Vice Chancellor, and non-Nazis would fill most other governmental posts. However, Hitler outmaneuvered and manipulated his contemporaries to put himself in a position where he could acquire unlimited political power. On August, 2 1934, Paul von Hindenburg, aged 86, died in Neudeck, Germany (now Ogrodzieniec, Poland).

    Physical Details

    Language
    German
    Classification
    Posters
    Genre/Form
    Political posters.
    Physical Description
    Broadside printed on rectangular, tan-colored paper, adhered to a white linen backing and featuring a large red arrow pointing to a large red X in a checkbox. The top and bottom of the broadside each have two lines of large, black, fraktur style, German text. In the lower left corner is a single German word in large block font. In the center, offset to the right, inside a large, light brown, rectangle are several paragraphs of small black, fraktur style, German text. Below the text are two large square boxes with inner circles, the left of which has a red X inside. The rectangle is flanked on the top and left by two large, thick, red lines that meet at a right angle. A red arrow emerges from the bottom of the line and points to the right, at the box marked with the X. A line of small black text is in the lower right margin.
    Dimensions
    overall: Height: 41.000 inches (104.14 cm) | Width: 29.375 inches (74.613 cm)
    Materials
    overall : paper, ink, cloth, adhesive
    Inscription
    front, linen backing, bottom right margin, handwritten : pII 502
    front, linen backing, bottom left margin, handwritten : 17/D

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    No restrictions on access
    Conditions on Use
    No restrictions on use

    Keywords & Subjects

    Geographic Name
    Munich (Germany)

    Administrative Notes

    Provenance
    The poster was acquired by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1990.
    Funding Note
    The cataloging of this artifact has been supported by a grant from the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.
    Record last modified:
    2022-07-28 18:21:28
    This page:
    https:​/​/collections.ushmm.org​/search​/catalog​/irn3738

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