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Eichmann Trial -- Session 25 -- Testimony of Y. Zuckerman

Film | Digitized | Accession Number: 1999.A.0087 | RG Number: RG-60.2100.036 | Film ID: 2035

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    Eichmann Trial -- Session 25 -- Testimony of Y. Zuckerman


    Session 25. Witness Yitzhak Zuckerman discusses Jewish hope to immigrate to Palestine during 1940: "Some people managed to reach Palestine...Some were caught and returned... and were murdered on Polish soil." He also describes the efforts of the Jewish underground in Warsaw. Attorney General Gideon Hausner questions Zuckerman about his fake Aryan papers, as well as his impressions of Nazi-occupied Poland. Zuckerman replies: "Degredation, depression, helplessness..."

    Court is out of session after a blip at 00:06:30; the audience enters, and the camera focuses on the Israeli Police Officers and media interpreters. The Judges enter and open the next session; Hausner questions Zuckerman about deportations and Nazi treatment of elderly people. He asks Zuckerman about the Jewish fighting force. Hausner submits exhibit T/254-Mueller's letter about the capture of 'three Jewish bandits' who organized resistance efforts. Zuckerman continues to describe resistance efforts in Poland-specifically in Warsaw. He details his activities as a resistance fighter and mentions collaborations with the Polish underground: "We obtained arms, we also killed Germans, we also took arms from them... And the last thing that we received-the faith that we knew how to fight."

    Hausner submits exhibit T/255-a letter written by Mordechai Anielewicz, leader of the Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto. Zuckerman reads a portion of the letter: "Something occurred which is beyond our wildest dreams. Twice the Germans fled from the ghetto... I was privileged to see Jewish self defense in the ghetto in all its greatness and magnificence." Following a blip at 00:55:22, Zuckerman gives his assessment of the Jewish fighting resistance.
    Film Title
    Eichmann Trial
    Event:  1961 May 03
    Production:  1961 May 03
    Jerusalem, Israel
    Accessed at United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of The Steven Spielberg Jewish Film Archives of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    Director: Leo Hurwitz
    Producer: Capital Cities Broadcasting Corporation
    Subject: Yitzhak Zuckerman
    Producer: Milton Fruchtman
    Camera Operator: J. Kalach
    Camera Operator: Emil Knebel
    Camera Operator: J. Jonilowicz
    Camera Operator: F. Csaznik
    Camera Operator: Rolf M. Kneller
    Born in Vilna, Lithuania, in 1915, Yitzhak Zuckerman became a member of the Zionist youth movement He-Chalutz Ha-Tsa'ir. In 1936, he joined the movement headquarters and became one of its two Secretaries General. When the war broke out in September 1939, he left Warsaw and traveled east. In April, 1940, following the movement's instructions, he crossed back over the border and returned to Nazi-occupied territories, settlingin Warsaw and acting as a local and national youth movement leader. "Antek", as he was called, set up underground networks throughout Poland, organized educational activities, and regularly visited the various ghettos. During his work he met a fellow activist, Zivia Lubetkin, who later became his wife. After the German invasion of the USSR in the autumn, 1941, news of Jewish massacres spread. Antek knew that resistance had to be organized. He joined the Antifascist Bloc and attended the founding meetings of the ZOB, in July, 1942, calling for Jewish resistance. On December 22, 1942, he was wounded in Krakow during a German military action against the local Jewish organization. He managed to return to Warsaw, and helped lead the preparations of the April, 1943, uprising as the commander of one of the three sectors of the ghetto. As a representative of the ZOB, Antek was sent to the Polish side of the city, to secure contacts with the Polish underground fighting organizations, a mission which probably saved his life. While he was away, the final liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto, and the uprising occurred. After the fall of the ghetto, Antek helped the survivors, hidden on the Aryan side, and kept in touch with partisans and Jewish labor camp inmates. He headed the Jewish Fighters Unite of the Polish uprising of August, 1944. After the war he was active in social and welfare activities with survivors, in the rebirth of the He-Chalutz movement, and in the organization of the exodus of the remnants of Polish Jewry to Israel in 1946-47. Zuckerman, together with his wife, Zivia Lubetkin, left Poland in 1947. They were among the founders of Kibbutz Lohamei Haghetaot and the Museum Beit Lohamei Haghetaot. Yitzhak Zuckerman died in 1981, on his kibbutz, at the age of 66.
    **Courtesy of The Ghetto Fighters' House: Holocaust and Jewish Resistance Heritage Museum, Israel.
    Emil Knebel was a cinematographer known for Andante (2010), Adam (1973), and Wild Is My Love (1963). He was one of the cameramen who recorded daily coverage of the Eichmann trial in Jerusalem (produced by Capital Cities Broadcasting Corp and later held academic positions in Israel and New York teaching filmmaking at universities. Refer to CV in file.

    Physical Details

    English German Hebrew
    B&W / Color
    Black & White
    Image Quality
    Time Code
    00:00:31:00 to 00:55:26:00
    Film Format
    • Master
    • Master 2035 Video: Digital Betacam - NTSC - large
      Master 2035 Video: Digital Betacam - NTSC - large
      Master 2035 Video: Digital Betacam - NTSC - large
      Master 2035 Video: Digital Betacam - NTSC - large
    • Preservation
    • Preservation 2035 Video: Betacam SP - NTSC - large
      Preservation 2035 Video: Betacam SP - NTSC - large
      Preservation 2035 Video: Betacam SP - NTSC - large
      Preservation 2035 Video: Betacam SP - NTSC - large

    Rights & Restrictions

    Conditions on Access
    You do not require further permission from the Museum to access this archival media.
    Public Domain
    Conditions on Use
    To the best of the Museum's knowledge, this material is in the public domain. You do not require further permission from the Museum to reproduce or use this material.

    Keywords & Subjects

    Administrative Notes

    Film Provenance
    Capital Cities Broadcasting Corporation recorded the proceedings of the Adolf Eichmann trial in 1961. The original recording was made on two-inch format videotape. One set of videotapes contained selected portions of the trial for distribution to television stations. The "selected portions" version remained in Israel and was later turned over to the Israel State Archives. Capital Cities Broadcasting retained the set of videotapes containing the complete trial proceedings at offices in New York City until 1965, when they gave the videotapes to the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith. The Anti-Defamation League, in turn, gave the complete set to the Steven Spielberg Jewish Film Archive at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1972. With a grant from the Revson Foundation, Hebrew University transferred the two-inch videotapes to U-Matic format. During the transfer process, Hebrew University created three duplicate sets. One set was given to the Steven Spielberg Jewish Film Archive, one to the Israel State Archives, and one set to the Jewish Museum in New York City. In 1995, the Israel State Archives transferred the trial footage to digital videoformat with a grant from the Israeli Prime Minister's Office. Three subsequent digital videotape copies resulted from this transfer of footage. The Israel State Archives retained one digital copy and a second set was deposited at the Steven Spielberg Jewish Film Archive at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum received the third set of digital videotapes in May 1999.
    See official transcripts, published in "The Trial of Adolf Eichmann", Vol. I-V, State of Israel, Ministry of Justice, Jerusalem, 1994, pp. 411-419. Also available online at the Nizkor Project.
    Copied From
    2" Quad
    Film Source
    Steven Spielberg Jewish Film Archive
    File Number
    Legacy Database File: 2129
    Source Archive Number: VTEI 232
    Record last modified:
    2024-02-21 07:46:03
    This page:

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